Factors that Influence Teachers’ Adoption and Integration of ICT in Teaching/Learning Process: Qualitative Annotation

Section 1: Article Information

Title of the Article

“Factors That Influence Teachers’ Adoption and Integration of ICT in Teaching/Learning Process”

Name of the Author(s)

Japhet E. Lawrence and Usman A. Tar

Source of the Article

Journal Name: Educational Media International

Publication Details: 2018, vol. 55, no. 1, 79-105.

Section 2: Preliminary Analysis

The purpose of the study was to identify the factors that influence the decision of educators to adopt and integrate information communication technology in teaching and learning activities. The research aimed at establishing the challenges that hinder the effective implementation of technology. Hence, to achieve the objective, the scholars conducted exploratory and descriptive analyses. Rogers’s (1995) diffusion of innovation theory was used as the basis for their study, which informs research on the adoption of technology in various settings, including education. The authors applied grounded theory to inform the data collection and analysis. Besides, they identified multiple factors, including attitude toward ICT, teacher-level factors (age, gender, education, and knowledge), technological aspects, and institutional dynamics. Notably, barriers to adoption were identified, such as lack of ICT knowledge and integration, insufficient time, resistance to change, limitation of infrastructure and complexity, absence of training, and inadequate technical support.

Section 3: Methods and Empirics

Research Method

The researchers used exploratory and descriptive research to identify the factors influencing the adoption and integration of information communication technology by educators in the teaching and learning process. They utilized a qualitative approach to gain a detailed description and conceptualization of the study within a grounded theory. Besides, they conducted a case study to generate an in-depth understanding of the influences and barriers of technology in educational settings.

Data Collection

The researchers collected data using semi-structured interviews and a case study based on grounded theory. The four teachers who participated in the research were asked open-ended and relatively unstructured questions. Qualitative data were collected to understand the views of the respondents and the interpretation of their actions and events. The authors performed a case study involving extensive interviews with the participants and documentary evidence from the educational setting.

Sampling Technique

The researchers approached six teachers to request their participation in the study. The sampling method was purposive because they identified the participants without the use of randomization or the creation of a sampling frame. They emailed the potential participants requesting their participation. Only four of them agreed to take part in the process. The sample was representative of teachers regarding their role in ICT adoption and integration in the teaching and learning process. The authors of the study performed two rounds of data collection to provide formative evidence and ensure the validity of the interview schedule. Data analysis was systematic, involving abstraction and comparison based on the grounded theory.

Section 4: Critical Review

The article provides a critical analysis of the factors that influence the decisions made by teachers regarding the adoption and integration of ICT in the teaching and learning process. In their qualitative study, Lawrence and Tar (2018) offer an in-depth exploration and description of the influences in educational settings. Compared to other studies in this area, the article presents empirical evidence to examine the phenomenon from the perspective of teachers, who are the actual implementers of technology.

The scholarly journal offers quality findings on the factors and challenges that influence the adoption and integration of ICT in teaching and learning. The researchers meet the criteria for academic standards of writing by using a valid and reliable method of collecting data to inform their results. The authors have also presented and organized the article logically for the reader to follow the report from the beginning to the end. They have cited current and scholarly sources of information for their study, especially in the literature review section.



Lawrence, J. E., & Tar, U. A. (2018). Factors that influence teachers’ adoption and integration of ICT in teaching/learning process. Educational Media International, 55(1), 79-105.

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